Formalism is nothing but its a critical theory in which it guides how one can take the real meaning from a text with out having any unnecessary deviations from the text itself.
When we consider the essay of Cleanth Brooks "The Formalist Critics " there he presented the matters like what would be texts' meaning as it supposed to be and the normal doubts that could have raised regarding the critical theory and so on .
Literary text treats as an independent existence that what Formalism is all about. Here we say no to any extra textual elements like the circumstances in which the text is created, and the author background sagas shouldn't be considered.
After stating some tenets he states some objections and misundestandings regarding the proper grasping of the theory and says I am also no exception from this angle of suspicion but it's not the reality. Then he elaborates the key points with examples.
No need to bother about the author that's unnecessary. He states " Speculation on the mental process of the author takes the critic away from the work into biography and psychology." ( Formalist Critics).
It's only do with the composition of the work rather than the real structure. In the case of reader as Brooks puts " texts are recreated in the minds of actual readers, who vary enormously in their capabilities, their interests , their prejudices , theur ideas." So it's not necessary for us to get to the right point what actually meant by the author. Authors' intentions has already been there, and its our duity to dig out the real intentions only from the text that counts than the analysis of suspicious versions of what the author was actually trying to convey.