, A pen Latin penna , feather is a writing implement used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper , for writing or drawing . Historically, reed pens , quill pens, and dip pens were used, with a nib dipped in the ink. Ruling pens allow precise adjustment of line width, and still find a few specialized uses, but technical pens such as the Rapidograph are more commonly used. Modern types also include ballpoint Genetic measurements indicate that the ape lineage which would lead to Homo sapiens diverged from the lineage that would lead to chimpanzees the closest living relative of modern humans around five million years ago.It is thought that the Australopithecine genus, which were likely the first apes to walk upright, eventually gave rise to genus Homo . Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa about 200,000 years ago, and reached behavioral modernity about 50,000 years ago. Modern humans spread rapidly from Africa into the frost-free zones of Europe and Asia around 60,000 years ago.The rapid expansion of humankind to North America and Oceania took place at the climax of the most recent Ice Age , when temperate regions of today were extremely inhospitable. Yet, humans had colonised nearly all the ice-free parts of the globe by the end of the Ice Age, some 12,000 years ago. Other hominids such as Homo erec The Neolithic Revolution , beginning about 8,000 BCE, saw the development of agriculture, which drastically changed the human lifestyle. Farming permitted far denser populations, which in time organised into states . Agriculture also c reated food surpluses that could support people not directly engaged in food production. The development of agriculture permitted the creation of the first cities . These were centres of trade , manufacturing and political power with nearly no agricultural production of their own. Cities established a symbiosis with their surrounding countrysides , absorbing agricultural products and providing, in return, manufactured goods and varying degrees of military control and protection. Rise of civilization The development of cities was synonymous with the rise of civilization . Early civilizations arose first in lower Mesopotamia 3500 BCE, followed by Egyptian civilization along the Nile 3000 BCE and the Harappan civilization in the Indus Valley in present-day Pakistan 2500 BCE. These societies developed a number of unifying characteristics, including a central government, a complex economy and social structure, sophisticated language and writing systems, and distinct cultures and religions. Writing was another pivotal development in human history, as it made the administration of cities and expression of ideas far easier. Writing is a medium of communication that represents language through the inscription of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary , grammar and semantics , with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols, usually in the form of a formal alphabet . The result of writing is generally called text , and the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication , storytelling , correspondence and diary . Writing has been instrumental in keeping history , dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems . Under the influence of technologies such as data storage and computer networks, the pace of correspondence and potential for collaboration increased. As human societies emerged, the development of writing was driven by pragmatic exigencies such as exchanging information, maintaining financial accounts, codifying laws and recording history. Around the 4th millennium BCE, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.In both Ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica writing may have evolved through calendrics and a political necessity for recording historical and environmental events.